The Freedom of Self-forgetfulness

The successful life is not about loving oneself or hating oneself. It’s about forgetting oneself. We can forget about ourselves only when we come to a place where we don’t care what others think and we don’t care about what we think.  As long as our identity and worth is tied to what I think about myself or what others think I will never flourish. I will always be overinflated or under inflated. The way through the mess that is our ego is to be come convinced that the ultimate verdict of my life is not tied to others opinion of me or even my own opinion but rather Gods opinion of me. 

The sheer beauty of Christianity shines on this point above all. In every other religion the verdict for my life only comes after my performance, so my self worth is still tied to what I do, only the stakes are much higher! Thanks to Jesus, the verdict of my life is in before the performance. The pressure is off, because of Jesus I am a loved and cherished by God. Proving my worth is no longer part of the equation of life. I am free. Criticism, self doubt, regret, and performance anxiety – all of these paralyzing realities connected to my ego are cut off. I can breathe, I can relax, I can love. This is so liberating.

This tiny little 46 page book is an absolute gem. 

Whether or not you follow Jesus this book is a worthy read. 

This Actually Happened To Me – Health Care, Canadian Style


My hip was hurting again. I’ve put this off long enough, I thought to myself. It was time for me to face the facts. My hip was toast, and I needed to start the process of getting a new one. 9 years of limping needed to end.

Finally after waiting in the lobby of the Walk-in clinic for to long, I got the chance to tell my story to the doctor. I have letters and MRI reports, and X-rays from years past so I was ready.

“What seems to be the trouble?” he asks.

I launch in to my story, showing him what other doctors have said over the course of nearly a decade of hip pain. He notices that the reports which affirm joint deterioration and recommend surgery are from the States.

“F***ing Americans!” He blurts out.

Huh? What? Wasn’t expecting the F-bomb in the doctors office, I’m a little dazed. Before I can say anything he carries on.

“Yeah they don’t care about you, your hip is probably fine, it’s just that they get bucket loads of money for cutting you up!”


“Yeah, man, they get all the money, and we GP’s get nothing up here in Canada, It’s really hard to make it as a doctor in Canada you know.”

At this point I have no idea what to say. Finally I try to get us back on topic.

“Well, the American doctors decided not to operate because I was too young. They said I needed to change my lifestyle and manage my pain, so anyway, I moved to Canada, and tried to figure out ways to avoid surgery and manage pain so I did all kinds of things, like PRP for example.”

“What’s that?”

“Platelet Rich Plasma Therapy” I tell him.

He cocks his head and crosses his arms “Is that some kind of Naturopathic thing?”


“F***ing Naturopaths! — It’s just witchdoctor voodoo s**t man and they make so much money doing it! It’s just really hard for GP’s to make it in Vancouver!”

The second F-bomb had landed as effortlessly as the first. Wow!

It occurred to me, that this was not the guy to help me with my hip today. I began inching my way to the door. Health care, Canadian style, not always helpful, but certainly never boring.

Desiring the Kingdom



He is repetitive, however, since his book is all about the benefits of repetition and the development of desire shaping habits, I don’t suppose he should apologize for using the word “pedagogy” a whopping 57 times and “telos” 38 times in his book!

What is Smith after with all this talk about habits and liturgies? He is in full revolt against Descartes axiom “I think therefore I am.” For Smith we are not fundamentally rational/thinking creatures, nor are we fundamentally believing creatures. Smith is utterly convinced that we are desiring creatures. To be human is to love (51) We are affective embodied creatures who make our way in the world by feeling our way around it (47) — So when it comes to the goal (telos) of education methods (pedagogy) Especially the formation of Christian education, we should be less concerned about ideas, rules, and doctrines and more concerned about capturing the imagination through pictures, stories, and embodied rituals. The reason for this, according to Smith is that our habits are the hinge that turns our heart”(56) as embodied lovers our loves are aimed and primed by the rituals and practices that turn those desires (126) 

We need to give up our fixation on ideas, (65) he says, after all, before Christians had systematic theologies and worldviews they were singing hymns and psalms, saying prayers and celebrating the eucharist. (139) In so many churches belief and doctrine inform us and our worship follows as an expression of that belief.  Smith says that’s backwards. Worship comes first, because desire forms knowledge.

The undeniable passion of this book is to call Christians back to liturgy. We need intentional embodied practices at corporate worship gatherings because they are invaluable in shaping our loves and desire’s back toward God. Absorbing information about God won’t do it.  Smith’s argument was compelling especially when he compared how secular institutions such as the mall, the frat house, and the stadium all employ embodied rituals and habits with incredible success as the means to capture the hearts of people.

The curious paradox — Smith writes a book, books target the mind. His book is a bunch of ideas communicating that ultimately it’s not ideas that form our loves but rather practices. He himself is still fixated on ideas, by virtue of the fact that he writes a book. He wants us to believe that humans operate from the body up. (25) but yet his book, is attempting to grab our heart from the mind down, as books do. I point out this paradox to suggest that maybe there is more to the development of deep love than embodied practices. Maybe that’s just a part of it, granted even a big part, but this book on its face, is leading me to believe that if I just practice more liturgy, if I just actively engage in more embodied habits and rituals then a deeper love for God will be formed in my life. Is that true? I am not convinced.

What does the Bible say about this?  — Smith doesn’t really interact much with the Bible. I think it has a lot to say. In the Old Testament we discover Jewish worship and see quickly that it is loaded with liturgy. The ancient worshippers were totally embodied — all the senses engaged in repetitive worship designed to deepen love for God. So far, Smith could simply point to that and say “see there you have it”. The only troubling business is when you get to the prophets and then ultimately to Jesus. They all launch full scale attacks on the religion of their respective days and liturgy is at the centre of their condemnation.  The assault crashes in: They honour me with their lips, they are meticulous in the practice of their rituals, but yet there is a huge problem. From Isaiah to Jesus it’s the same problem. “Their hearts are far from me.” Bucket loads of liturgy, more than anyone in the 21st century Western world could even fathom, and yet the hearts of these worshippers are not even close to being captured by God’s love. What does one make of this? What is shocking to me, is Smith doesn’t even bring it up, not a single word word about it.

What does Church History say about this? — As you trace church history you see the same pattern emerging. Over time, faith often finds itself reduced to going through ritualistic motions, with hearts not at all captured by God’s love. After reading Luther’s biography (1500’s), and then Whitefield’s (1700’s) it’s plain to see that these men called their listeners away from dead ritual and into something that was not just felt, but also known and believed. It seems to me that somehow knowledge, belief, and desire working in concert is what awakened people to a deeper love for God.

I agree with Smith that love is what drives the human, it shapes our belief and our knowledge – or at least how we interpret knowledge. I also agree that at some level habitual practice is extremely formative in shaping desire, I’m just not sure if that’s all there is to it. I think there is more.

I think mission might have something to do with it — the habitual practice of outward action. (?) It might be why Paul says “What is important is faith expressing itself in love” (Gal 5:6) This coming after he straightly charges the Galatians believers not to fall back into their Jewish rituals and practices. — The Love of Christ must flow outward or it dies. Maybe for this same reason, Micah says to his listeners its not about bowing, and burning, and offering things to God in ritualistic fashion. Rather, it’s about doing what is right in the everyday, practicing mercy on people, and being humble. (Micah 6:8) — perhaps in the walking out of God’s mission love grows.

Feeling the Groove


He was totally dialled in. Oblivious to the world. His white man afro was dancing wildly in the wind. His size 12 shoe reached out in front of him and gobbled up yards of bike path with each stride.  I had never seen a skateboarder go so fast.  The sun was setting, and the sea wall was bathed in the warm soft rays of final light.  It was a beautiful night for a ride and he was taking full advantage of the relatively unpeopled path. I tucked in behind him on my road bike, within moments I was ready to pass, but I couldn’t get around him. He was now crouched low on his long board, leaning forward, hands outstretched, smiling from ear to ear. It looked as if his eyes were closed! In his enraptured state he was weaving all over the bike path and try as I might I couldn’t seem to get around him. Finally I got as close as I dared and hollered


His head jerked up, and he looked over at me with a sheepish grin, pulling out his earbuds he yelled

“Sorry dude, I was just feeling the groove!”

It’s good to feel the groove.  Every now and then for a fleeting moment or two all of us are like that skateboarder, everything feels like it should, everything perfect, it’s “the groove.” Are those moments just dumb luck? Fortunate happenstance? Meaningless endorphins just doing their thing?  Something great, then gone for ever?

What if these “groove” moments could be viewed not as experiences lost and memories ever dimming but rather as glimpses of a future that will be gained? What if we believed that the joys of today were mere tastes of an eternal banquet of joy to come? I think that’s the best way of looking it. Jesus has promised us great things and the great moments of our lives that pass so quickly should serve as joy and gratitude infusing reminders for us of what will be.

Religion is good, provided it doesn’t actually say anything 

They tell the prophets,

“Don’t tell us what is right.

Tell us nice things.

Tell us lies.

Isaiah 30:10

2700 years ago the people wanted religion, but they wanted it to suit them, to make them happy and comfortable. This is exactly the kind of religion many in our world desire today. Religion that doesn’t actually make any claims, religion that doesn’t actually give directives for life, religion that doesn’t take a moral stance on anything. We want a religion that isn’t hard and doesn’t require sacrifice. Much to be preferred is a religion that just makes you feel good about yourself. Meditate, stretch, breathe, feel good, repeat. The principle deity of “tell us nice things religion” is self. In the end, self is a poor choice for a deity.

Why Jesus?


Ravi is not a happy camper and it shows. He knows it too, towards the end of his book he says,

“Some might even consider the tone of this book too strong or harsh.. it is hard not to get passionate when you read the bizarre twists of truth offered by the proponents of the New Spirituality.”

What are these “bizarre twist’s of truth” that have managed upset one of Christianity’s  foremost apologists?

If truth is solid ground. Then new spirituality, is happy in the clouds. They shake their heads at those below who battle for truth. Their’s is a more noble stance, they think. Theirs which refuses to judge anything or anyone. But in doing that they have eradicated distinctions and words are now used to tell us that there is really no particular meaning to anything. Morality, time, essence, absolutes are all gone by the wayside in the name of spirituality, what is left for those in the clouds is to take pot shots at those below who still holds these distinctions.  For Ravi, “Giving yourself the privilege of destroying other positions while parking your own position in an unidentifiable location is a form of linguistic terrorism” (14) Chopra, New Spiritualities most celebrated saint, says flatly there are no answers, and that hope is ultimately a sign of despair  (92) Spirituality we are told is really just an expression of a universal hunger rather than an answer to anything. The hunger is satiated temporarily by whatever technique the guru prescribes. Ultimately the goal is self deification. “We will remain unfulfilled unless we nurture the seeds of divinity inside us. In reality, we are divinity in disguise, and the gods and goddesses in embryo that are contained within us seek to be fully materialized” says Chopra. (91) Ravi half jokes when he says he is not surprised that celebrities and spiritual guru’s have joined forces so well. “One thinks they are gods’ and the other tells them they are.”

Ravi is doing his best to catch a greased pig in a way. With N.S. everything is nothing, and nothing is everything, the human is God, and God is the human, there is hope, but there is not hope. There is meaning but no meaning, things are constantly shifting and nothing can be grasped, meaning is cloaked in ponderous terminology and so it is by design. Elkhart Tolle, when talking about suffering for example says, your suffering is good because it forces you to become nothing, to become as God, because God too is nothing” huh?

Ravi tries to lasso the cloud and catch the pig in two primary ways:

  1. Point out the inconsistencies. In a classic Ravi style assault of this particular belief system he says the following “Once a worldview has been established, it becomes the grid for making particular judgements. To say that there are no moral absolutes and then castigate Christians for being hypocritical assumes that hypocrisy is a moral flaw and a contradictory position and therefore, is to be vilified. To say that there is a spark of divinity in all of us and then treat the lower castes as “less divine” to even create such a system that categorizes people like this — is again to run afoul of reason. (Ravi will not let the new spirituality forget it’s roots in the east) Worldviews begin by definitions. Definitions create boundaries. Violations of those boundaries elicit condemnation. That condemnation itself excludes. It is impossible to sustain truth without excluding falsehood. All religions are exclusive.
  2. Point to a better story. This, in my opinion, was his most compelling point. Ultimately N.S. is an autonomous spirituality, it is a non personal theology with the individual self being all there is. Heaven is when self is lost in a union with an ultimate impersonal absolute. Heaven is a disconnect from relationship in this system. Christianity, is radically different than this. It teaches that at the heart of every human is a cry to belong. It’s why long lasting relationships are prized above everything today. We all still want “true love” to be true, even though we seem to see it less and less.  Such an ultimate belonging is possible through a personal relationship with the God of the universe. Heaven in the Christian system, is when a person is welcomed into the presence of the Ultimate Being. Relationship trumps individual supremacy to me, making Christianity an infinitely better story.

History Anyone?


History Book Reviews

A Child’s History of the World V.M. Hillyer

If it’s not a classic, perhaps it should be. Even my 5 and 6 year olds were drawn into discussion’s around this book. Hillyer clearly made it his expert craft to draw children into a love of learning and it shows. Through Hillyer history exploded off the pages and came alive in the minds of my children (and me).

It was written over 70 years ago, when America was still largely a Christian country so the story of God is woven into the historical narrative of humanity, without ignoring science or mocking the Bible. I found Hillyer’s efforts to allow the peaceful interfacing of God, history and science both refreshing and balanced.


The New Concise History of the Crusades Thomas F. Madden.

Kill people in Jesus name? What were they thinking? Perspective helps a lot in understanding. In this Madden is valuable. In the same way we are shocked that so many people would be willing to do battle for their religion, so to would the people of that era be shocked at us in our willingness to shed blood over political ideology, nationalism, or greed. The only thing worth dying for in that era was your faith. Anything else would have seemed foolish to them. Protecting the holy land was an issue because the powers that be were able to connect it to the faith of the people.

The crusades at first then were little more than misshapen piety. The people who went on them were under prepared, ill equipped, pilgrims determined fight there way into Jerusalem to worship and then go home. So many of these pious ones were slaughtered and most of the lands they gained were quickly lost because the vast majority of crusaders who actually survived the endeavours wanted nothing more than to return home upon completion of their pilgrimage.

Later crusades were definitely more conquest oriented, but in this Madden also does the reader a good service by dispelling the notion that the crusades could ever be reduced to bloodthirsty Christians killing and conquering innocent muslims. There we’re 5 key players in the in the Crusade era: Western Christians, Byzantine Christians, Sunni Muslims, Shia Muslims, and the small branch of Christians that clung to ever shrinking strongholds captured in the holy land. These 5 players were constantly battling each other, in order to gain the upper hand. For example, when the Shia brand of Islam came up from Egypt and threatened the holy land the Sunnis were quick to partner with the Western Christians to beat them back. Also during the 4th Crusade the Western Christians never even made it to the holy land, instead the sacked the Byzantine capital of Constantinople. The blow so weakened the empire of Eastern Christendom, that the Muslim conquest of Constantinople in 1453 can be attributed in part to the devastation brought upon that city by invading Western Christians so many years before. Other examples of this 5 way mess are what the book is all about.

As far as winning goes, there is no question the muslim’s won. That the Christians were able to hang on to some of their holdings in Palestine for as long as they did, was near miraculous.

According to Madden, Muslims only recently embraced the idea of crusades as a rallying cry for revenge and violence upon the west. In their histories, nothing much is recorded, except to view the invaders from the west as just another army among many armies who lost, thanks to Allah and good leaders like Saladin.


The History of the Medieval World Susan Wise Bauer

Susan Wise Bauer takes an ambitious crack at filling the reader in on everything that happened in the world between the conversion of Constantine and the first Crusade.  From Krakatoa in Indonesia, to the mysterious dynasties of the Inca people, it’s all here in her book. She manages to avoid the nasty trap of limiting her writing to the spitting out of facts, dates and basic information that some historians get themselves into when having to cover so much stuff. Instead her book reads like a good newspaper — it has the information, but it has the stories that capture the imagination also. Bauer see’s the humour in being human and that is reflected in her writing. Bauer’s book also just drops it down to the reader in plain English. All the messed up stuff that is the human story is served to you on a great big platter. As you chew on it, it becomes easy to get reflective. To wonder how to avoid the mistakes of the past and embrace the successes for our future.




Jeff’s heart is now in print. Saturate comes loaded with a passion for Jesus and is filled to the brim with the gospel. In many ways it reads like one of his sermons. Frequently, he stops whatever narrative he is recounting or point he is making to challenge the reader personally. Jeff’s philosophy spills out onto the pages of his book through his life story. In the telling we discover a brutal honesty and a raw and refreshing vulnerability. When the gospel has it’s effect, there really is nothing to hide and so Jeff is wide open.

The church is the people of God on mission for God in everyday life. Thanks to Jeff and others increasing numbers of Christian people are coming to this basic conclusion. We are  finally getting the memo that Church is not a place you go to. It’s not a weekly dispensary designed to give religious consumers the goods and services they feel they need. But what does a church for everyday life look like? That’s where this book proves very helpful. Jeff’s teaching on understanding our identity as Christians and his practical helps at becoming intentional about everyday rhythms made alive though his stories are invaluable.

A great companion volume for this book would be Everyday Church by Tim Chester and Steve Timmis

The Transforming Power of the Gospel


This book, intended for Christians, walks the believer in Jesus, through what he is supposed to believe. Set against the cultural context of the west, the gospel as Jerry presents it seems ever increasingly counter-cultural.

God’s Hatred — A massive part of the good news story is the complete holiness of God. The hatred God has for sin is overwhelming. There is no “relax, take it easy, no big deal” attitude when it comes to God and sin. His holiness will not tolerate any sin ever. The guilt of offence is proportional to the greatness of the one whom we have offended and since God is the greatest of great, we have a problem.

Sin is very, very bad — Our culture is at war with the very concept of sin. Nobody in our world want’s to speak of it. Poor choices, extenuating circumstances, lousy environment, mental illness, unwise decisions etc. are the preferred explanations we give for the bad stuff we do. However, the gospel defines all the bad stuff as sin, and sin according to the Bible is a complete disregard for God, a rebellion against his authority, and a defiance against his way, and, as the story goes, all of us are full of sin. Nobody seems to want to think in those terms anymore. But those are the terms set before us if the good news is to truly be good news.

Jesus meets us in our mess — Some people deal with the reality of guilt through self condemnation, they are forever beating themselves up. Others go in the opposite direction and embrace self righteousness as their coping mechanism. They have no time to consider their own guilt because they are too busy judging others and proving to anyone interested (and anyone who is not) just how good they are. Jesus comes and through him we acknowledge our guilt. We no longer condemn ourselves or justify ourselves we simply in faith give our sin over to God through Jesus. The good news destroy’s the performance based life — we don’t have to prove ourselves anymore, we are loved.  The good news also destroy’s the guilt based life, we don’t have to punish ourselves any more, we are forgiven.

Am I really cursed? — Do we really believe that we deserve the curse of God? Unfathomable, in our modern cultural context, but yet that is the belief of every single Christian.

Gratitude as motivation for obedience — If we are convinced that we are deserving of judgment but yet we receive eternal reward because of Jesus’ sacrifice, then the overwhelming response to this grace can only be gratitude. We do not obey God’s wishes because we live in fear of judgment or in expectation of reward we obey them out of a thankful heart coming from the great love that has been showered upon us.

Don’t think about rewards think about grace — Jerry attempts to divert the reader from considering eternal rewards as a motivator for obedience, I get that, however, if eternal rewards are a non-factor, why do the Scriptures talk about them so much? Jerry does not attempt to answer that question. Perhaps, we are supposed to think of eternal rewards, not so much as a reason for obedience, but rather a cause for joy. The anticipation of what will be is great fuel to help us persevere now, most especially when times are tough. This forward look of the gospel’s consummation, is a big point, I think, that was missed.

Dependant Responsibility — This was a major point in this book. The Holy Spirit does the work of transformation. Salvation and growth in a persons life are all the work of God. However, the human is responsible. How does that work? Jerry sorts this paradox by going into a classroomish explanation of the synergistic vs. monergistic works of the Holy Spirit. Sometimes when you break the story down into it’s highly technical parts you loose a little something, at least for me anyway.

Repentance — I was struck at the necessity of regular repentance for the Christian. Getting into the habit of giving all the junk over to Jesus is tremendously beneficial for helping the follower of Jesus remember the gospel story he is believing.

Everyday Church


Another book about the church. There are a lot of them out there. This is one of the better ones. These men offer us a powerful critique of where the church has lost it’s focus, but they don’t just blast away, rather, with a gracious spirit they offer some tremendous assistance in moving forward. For 2015 this book receives my strongest recommendation. If you are at all interested in the church, read this book. Below is simply a compilation of snippets, woven together, to give you a taste.

If I build it will they come? Merely opening our doors each Sunday is no longer sufficient. Offering good products is not enough. What is clear is that great swathes of America will not be reached through Sunday morning services. (15) Since the Bible no longer has authority in public discourse increasingly less and less of our population has any interest in church attendance whatsoever. (19) Our persistent ‘come to us’ mind set suggests that we really believe that people who refuse to come in the front door are beyond the reach of Christ. We cannot assume people will come to us. We must go to them. (28) We cannot assume that people feel any need or obligation to attend church (37) – they don’t.  Even if we could produce cool church events, we would create a generation of Christian consumers who look to the church to entertain them. (49) – Sadly, this in many cases is exactly what we have done. When church becomes a performance in which most people are observers of the super-talented, the people of God eventually become disenfranchised. (96)

What about persecution? It is a daily thing to experience marginalization and hostility. (36) We need to discover or recover the sense that if this year we are not imprisoned it has been a good year .(38)

What is evangelism? It’s not a question of “improving the product” of church meetings and evangelistic events. It means reaching people apart from meetings and events. (17) Programs are what we create when Christians are not doing what they are supposed to do in everyday life. (50) It is not simply that ordinary Christians live good lives that enable them to invite friends to evangelistic events. Our lives are the evangelistic events (89) When we think of evangelism, we should not first think of guest services, evangelistic courses, street preaching, or door knocking. We should think of Gary at a meeting of the resident’s association. We should think of Hannah in her office. (90)

Being the church The church needs to understand itself as a people sent on a mission together rather than the storefronts for vendors of religious services and goods. (98) The gospel community is the core unit, when understanding church. These little communities on mission should be the primary organizing principle of the church.  It is within these collections of people that the work of evangelism, pastoral care, discipleship, and sharing life take place. A gospel community is a network of relationships that will probably have a regular meeting, but they are sharing life throughout the week (105) However you do church, let it be nothing less than the people of God on mission together. In this way we are a city on a hill and a light of the world. (111) Everyday church fills everyday, but it does not necessarily fill it with extra activities. It’s fundamentally a matter of becoming intentional about the everyday stuff of life. (143) No new life is possible without the Spirit of God, so we arrange to pray together because we see it as our  primary missional activity. (149) Everyday church is not primarily about a structure but about a culture or ethos. (155) Weekly Sunday gathering is important but it cannot achieve all that the New Testament envisions for church life. It cannot be a context for the one anothering of the New Testament. Moreover, if it is seen as primary, then all these other things are viewed as secondary. If the bulk of a churches time and energy goes into the Sunday meeting, then everyday church will not happen. (160)

Where are the lost? If we could place people on a range of one to ten depending on their interest in the gospel, where one is no interest and ten is a decision to follow Christ, lots of evangelism assumes people are at around eight. We teach our gospel outlines. We teach answers to apologetic questions. We hold guest services. We put on evangelistic courses. We preach in the open air or knock on doors. All these are great things to do, but 70 percent of the population is at one or two. (112) It’s not so much attractional events that will win people it is attractional communities. (88)

Speaking the gospel story into peoples stories. — Obviously, people do not use the categories creation, fall redemption, and consummation. But they will talk about who they are and what they are meant to be (creation) They will talk about what is wrong with them or what is wrong with the world — somebody or something will be blamed (fall) They will also have a sense of what needs to happen for things to be put right (redemption) and some sense of the state of affairs that they are hoping will give them meaning or satisfaction. (consummation) Creation = my identity who I am. Fall = My problem. Redemption = my solution. Consummation = my hope.  (115)  People are throwing out their versions of this grand story all the time or job is to look for points of intersection. (119)

Measurements of success — What is a good church? What criteria do we use to make assessments? Preaching? Youth Work? Music? For the apostle Peter a good church is characterized by love, compassion, forgiveness, generosity, service, and grace…A good church is a church in which the believers share their lives together as an alternative and authentic society. (140)

Re-thinking professional ministry — The most important evangelistic work of the minister appears to be not in the church and the pulpit but in two other kinds of relationships: one to one meetings with non-Christians and the ‘lapsed’ and group situations, particularly those where there is an opportunity to talk about the nature of faith. (24) Authentic leadership can be bi-vocational, and in a marginalized context this may be preferable. Unbelievers are often suspicious of professional clergy. They are more willing to listen to someone who works hard with integrity in a “normal” job. It also brings leaders into contact with people who would never attend a church service. (146)


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